|Foundation of Byzantium by Greek settlers
|The town is located on the tip of a peninsula controlling the Golden Horn, a natural harbour
|Siege and destruction of Byzantium by Emperor Septimius Severus
|The town is rebuilt by the emperor who names it Augusta Antonina.
|Emperor Constantine selects Byzantium as the new capital (Nova Roma) of the Roman Empire
|In 330 the construction of the new city is completed: it will become known as Constantinopolis.
|Emperor Theodosius I makes Christianity the official state religion of the empire
|Theodosius places an obelisk in the Hippodrome and builds a triumphal gate (Golden Gate) at the entrance of the city.
|Emperor Theodosius II builds new walls
|First reconstruction of Hagia Sophia
|Emperor Justinian conquers Tunisia and Italy. During the 540s an outbreak of bubonic plague greatly reduces the population of the empire and its economy
|Second reconstruction of Hagia Sophia. It is thought that the plague killed 40% of the inhabitants of Constantinople.
|Emperor Eraclius manages to reconquer Syria and Egypt which were occupied by the Persians,
but these provinces are soon lost to the Arabs.
|Latin is replaced by Greek as official language of the Empire.
|First Arab siege of Constantinople
|Emperor Leo III repels the Second Arab siege of Constantinople
|Beginning of the Iconoclasm period (730-842)
|Emperor Leo VI is defeated by the Bulgarians. The strength of the empire rests on its navy.
|Venice starts having an important role in shipping to western Europe the luxury goods manufactured at Constantinople
|Continued dynastic quarrels weaken the empire. In 1071 Turkish tribes defeat the Byzantines at Manzikert and establish the Sultanate of Rum.
|The Comnenan dynasty restores the authority of the state.
|Construction of Christ Pantokrator
|The crusaders conquer Constantinople and put a temporary end to the Byzantine Empire
|The Byzantine Empire is restored by the Palaeologos dynasty
|The Ottomans conquer Bursa and Nicaea and expand their territories in Europe.
|Decoration of St. Saviour in Chora and of the Parecclesion of Theotokos Pammakaristos.
|The Ottomans gradually control most of the Byzantine Empire and in 1453 Sultan Mehmet II conquers Constantinople which becomes the capital of his empire
|Construction of Anadolu Hisar and Rumeli Hisar
|The Ottomans conquer the last Byzantine possessions at MistrÓ and Trebizond.
|Sultan Mehmet II starts the construction of Yeni (Topkapi) Sarayi.
|War with Venice; the Ottomans conquer Negroponte; they also expand their territories in central Anatolia.
|Construction of several mosques by the sultan and his grand viziers.
|War with Venice; the Ottomans acquire several fortresses on the Greek mainland.
|Sultan Beyazit II starts the construction of a large mosque.
|Expansion of the Ottoman Empire in Syria, Palestine, Egypt and along the coasts of the Red Sea.
|The Knights of Rhodes surrender their fortresses in the Aegean Sea.
|Completion of Sultan Selim Camii.
|Battle of Mohacs. The Ottomans conquer most of Hungary.
|War with Spain and Venice; failed siege of Corfu; Ottoman naval supremacy after they defeat a Christian fleet at Preveza.
|Mimar Sinan is appointed chief architect of the Ottoman court; Haseki Hurrem Kulliye is his first work in Constantinople.
|Alliance with France; the Ottoman fleet raids Imperial possessions in Spain, Sicily and near Naples.
|Mimar Sinan builds a turbe for Barbarossa, the admiral of the Ottoman fleet.
|War with Spain in the Mediterranean Sea; failed siege of Malta in 1565.
|Mimar Sinan builds many mosques and Suleymaniye.
|The Ottomans occupy Cyprus. Their fleet is defeated at Lepanto.
|Grand Vizier Sokullu Mehmet builds a large mosque at Kadirga.
|After the death of Sultan Selim II, the mothers of the sultans acquire a great power on the government of the state.
|Valide Sultan, mother of Sultan Murad II builds a large kulliye at Uskudar.
|Long War with Austria: the Ottomans are unable to expand into Habsburg territory.
|Foundation of Yeni (Valide) Camii by Safiye Sultan, mother of Sultan Mehmet III.
|The Safavids (Persians) seize Ottoman territories in the Caucasus.
|Construction of Sultan Ahmet Kulliyesi.
|War of Candia. Rise of the Koprulu family.
|Construction of Koprulu Kulliyesi.
|War with Austria and Venice; failed siege of Vienna; the Ottomans cede Hungary to Austria and Morea to Venice.
|Construction of Yeni Valide Camii at Uskudar in 1708.
|New war with Austria and Venice; the Ottomans cede Belgrade to Austria but reoccupy Morea.
|Construction of Sultan Ahmet III fountain.
|Wars with Russia (1735-39 and 1768-74); in 1771 Count Orloff destroys an Ottoman fleet at Cesme.
|Construction of Nuruosmaniye (1748-55) and Laleli Camii (1759-63).
|Sultan Mahmut II vainly attempts to strengthen the empire by introducing a series of reforms, including the disbandment of the Janissary corps.
|Construction of Nusretiye Camii and of Beyazit tower
|Crimean War; the main European powers compete to take advantage of the Ottoman decline.
|The Sultan and his court relocate at Dolmabahce Sarayi
|Wars with Italy, the Balcanic nations and finally WWI lead to the dissolvement of the Empire.
|The Sultanate is abolished. Ankara
is the capital of the newly founded Republic of Turkey.