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All images © by Roberto Piperno, owner of the domain. Write to romapip@quipo.it. Text edited by Rosamie Moore.
Page revised in August 2015.


- Map of Istanbul and Key Dates

You may wish to see an introduction to this section first.

Clickable map of the monuments shown in this section.
Blue dots: Roman Memories; red dots: Byzantine Heritage; green dots: Ottoman Monuments


The gates and some monuments built on the walls (namely Tekfur Sarayi, Yedikule, St. Saviour Philantropus, Incili Kosk and Bucoleon Palace) can be seen by clicking on "Walls 1), 2) 3) and 4)".

Ordered by map gridIn alphabetical order
Map gridMonumentMonumentMap Grid
A-3 - Green Kara Ahmet Pacha CamiiAhmediye KulliyesiG-2 Green
A-3 - Green Kurekcibasi CamiiAmcazade KulliyesiC-3 Green
A-3 - Green Behruz Aga CamiiAqueduct of ValensC-3 Blue
A-4 - Red Imrahor CamiiArap CamiiD-2 Red
A-4 - Red Koca Mustafa Pacha CamiiAtif Efendi LibraryC-3 Green
A-4 - Green Hadim Ibrahim Pacha CamiiAtik Ali Pacha CamiiD-3 Green
A-4 - Green Bala Suleyman Aga KulliyesiAtik Mustafa Pacha CamiiC-1 Red
B-1 - Red Ayasma BlachernaeAtik Valide KulliyesiG-3 Green
B-1 - Green Eyup CamiiAyasma BlachernaeB-1 Red
B-1 - Green Ivaz Efendi CamiiAyasma CamiiF-2 Green
B-1 - Green Mihrisa Sultan TurbesiAyasma St. KaralamboyC-2 Red
B-1 - Green Sah Sultan TurbesiAzap Kapi CesmesiD-2 Green
B-1 - Green Sokullu Mehmet Pacha TurbesiBab-I-Ali/Alay KoskuE-3 Green
B-1 - Green Zal Mahmut Pacha CamiiBala Suleyman Aga KulliyesiA-4 Green
B-2 - Blue Cistern of AetiosBarbaros TurbesiF-1 Green
B-2 - Red St. Saviour in ChoraBayram Pacha KulliyesiB-3 Green
B-2 - Red Fethiye CamiiBehruz Aga CamiiA-3 Green
B-2 - Green Ismail Aga Efendi CamiiBeyazit UniversitesiD-3 Green
B-2 - Green Mihrimah Camii at Edirne KapiBodrum CamiiC-4 Red
B-2 - Green Nisanci Mehmet Pacha CamiiBurmali CamiiC-3 Green
B-3 - Red Fenari Isa CamiiBuyuk Valide HaniD-3 Green
B-3 - Green Sinan's MinaretCerrah Pacha CamiiC-4 Green
B-3 - Green Bayram Pacha KulliyesiCihangir CamiiE-2 Green
B-4 - Blue Column of ArcadiusCinili CamiG-2 Green
B-4 - Green Davut Pacha CamiiCiragan SarayiG-1 Green
B-4 - Green Haseki Hurrem KulliyesiCistern of AetiosB-2 Blue
B-4 - Green Hekimoglu Ali PachaCistern of AsparC-1 Blue
C-1 - Red Atik Mustafa Pacha CamiiColumn of ArcadiusB-4 Blue
C-1 - Green Piyale Pacha CamiiColumn of Constantine (Cemberlitas)D-3 Blue
C-1 - Blue Cistern of AsparColumn of the GothsE-3 Blue
C-2 - Red Ayasma St. KaralamboyColumn of MarcianC-3 Blue
C-2 - Red Eski Imaret CamiiCorlulu Ali Pacha MedresesiD-3 Green
C-2 - Red Gul Camii (St. Theodosia's)Cukuc Cesme HaniC-3 Green
C-2 - Red St. George's (Orthodox Patriarchate)Davut Pacha CamiiB-4 Green
C-2 - Red St. Mary of the MongolsDolmabahce CamiiE-1 Green
C-2 - Green Sultan Selim I CamiiDolmabahce SarayiF-1 Green
C-3 - Blue Aqueduct of ValensEgyptian BazaarD-3 Green
C-3 - Blue Column of MarcianEsma Sultan NamazgahD-4 Green
C-3 - Red Molla Zeyrek CamiiEski Imaret CamiiC-2 Red
C-3 - Red Kalenderhane CamiiEski Imaret CamiiC-2 Red
C-3 - Red St. Polyeuktos'Fenari Isa CamiiB-3 Red
C-3 - Red Vefa Kilise CamiiFethiye CamiiB-2 Red
C-3 - Green Amcazade KulliyesiFeyzullah Efendi MedresesiC-3 Green
C-3 - Green Atif Efendi LibraryFiruz Aga CamiiD-3 Green
C-3 - Green Burmali CamiiForum of TheodosiusD-3 Blue
C-3 - Green Cukuc Cesme HaniFuad Pacha CamiiD-4 Green
C-3 - Green Feyzullah Efendi MedresesiGalata BridgeD-3 Green
C-3 - Green Gazanfer Aga MedresesiGazanfer Aga MedresesiC-3 Green
C-3 - Green Gevher Sultan MedresesiGevher Sultan MedresesiC-3 Green
C-3 - Green Laleli CamiiGul Camii (St. Theodosia's)C-2 Red
C-3 - Green Murat Pacha CamiiHadim Ibrahim Pacha CamiiA-4 Green
C-3 - Green Naksidil Sultan TurbesiHagia IreneD-3 Red
C-3 - Green Nevsehirli Ibrahim Pacha Dar-ul-hadisHagia SophiaD-3 Red
C-3 - Green Sehzade CamiiHekimoglu Ali PachaB-4 Green
C-3 - Green Sultan Fatih Mehmet Camii (*)Hippodrome and ObeliskD-4 Blue
C-4 - Red Bodrum CamiiHaseki Hurrem HammamD-4 Green
C-4 - Green Cerrah Pacha CamiiHaseki Hurrem KulliyesiB-4 Green
D-2 - Red Arap CamiiIbrahim Pacha SarayiD-4 Green
D-2 - Green Azap Kapi CesmesiImrahor CamiiA-4 Red
D-2 - Green Kilic Ali Pacha Camii and HammamIsmail Aga Efendi CamiiB-2 Green
D-2 - Green Sokullu Mehmet Camii-Azap KapiIvaz Efendi CamiiB-1 Green
D-2 - Green Tophane CesmesiKalenderhane CamiiC-3 Red
D-2 - Green Tophane-i-AmirKapali CarsiD-3 Green
D-3 - Blue Column of Constantine (Cemberlitas)Kara Ahmet Pacha CamiiA-3 Green
D-3 - Blue Forum of TheodosiusKara Mustafa Pacha TurbesiD-3 Green
D-3 - Blue MilionKilic Ali Pacha CamiiD-2 Green
D-3 - Blue Yerebatan SarayiKoca Mustafa Pacha CamiiA-4 Red
D-3 - Red Hagia SophiaKoca Sinan Pacha KulliyesiD-3 Green
D-3 - Red Hagia IreneKoprulu KulliyesiD-3 Green
D-3 - Green Mahmut Pacha CamiiKukuc Aya SofyaD-4 Red
D-3 - Green Atik Ali Pacha CamiiKurekcibasi CamiiA-3 Green
D-3 - Green Bab-I-Ali/Alay KoskuLaleli CamiiC-3 Green
D-3 - Green Beyazit UniversitesiMahmut Pacha CamiiD-3 Green
D-3 - Green Buyuk Valide HaniMihrimah Camii at Edirne KapiB-2 Green
D-3 - Green Corlulu Ali Pacha MedresesiMihrimah Camii (Uskudar)G-2 Green
D-3 - Green Egyptian BazaarMihrisa Sultan TurbesiB-1 Green
D-3 - Green Firuz Aga CamiiMilionD-3 Blue
D-3 - Green Galata BridgeMolla Celebi CamiiE-2 Green
D-3 - Green Kapali CarsiMolla Zeyrek CamiiC-3 Red
D-3 - Green Kara Mustafa Pacha TurbesiMurat Pacha CamiiC-3 Green
D-3 - Green Koca Sinan Pacha KulliyesiNaksidil Sultan TurbesiC-3 Green
D-3 - Green Koprulu KulliyesiNevsehirli Ibrahim Pacha Dar-ul-hadisC-3 Green
D-3 - Green Sinan TurbesiNisanci Kara Davut Pacha CamiiG-2 Green
D-3 - Green Soguk Kuyu MedresesiNisanci Mehmet Pacha CamiiB-2 Green
D-3 - Green Sultan Ahmet III CesmesiNuruosmaniye CamiiD-3 Green
D-3 - Green Sultan Mahmut II TurbesiNusretiye CamiiE-2 Green
D-3 - Green Nuruosmaniye CamiiOrtakoy CamiiG-1 Green
D-3 - Green Rustem Pacha CamiiPiyale Pacha CamiiC-1 Green
D-3 - Green Timurtas CamiiRum Mehmet CamiiF-2 Green
D-3 - Green Sultan Beyazit II CamiiRustem Pacha CamiiD-3 Green
D-3 - Green Sultan Suleyman KulliyesiSah Sultan TurbesiB-1 Green
D-3 - Green Sultan Selim II TurbesiSehzade CamiiC-3 Green
D-3 - Green Vezir HaniSemsi Pacha CamiiF-2 Green
D-3 - Green Yeni CamiSinan Pacha CamiiF-1 Green
D-3 - Green Zeynep Sultan CamiiSinan's MinaretB-3 Green
D-4 - Blue Hippodrome and ObeliskSinan TurbesiD-3 Green
D-4 - Red St. Euphemia'sSoguk Kuyu MedresesiD-3 Green
D-4 - Red Kukuc Aya SofyaSokullu Mehmet Camii-Azap KapiD-2 Green
D-4 - Green Esma Sultan NamazgahSokullu Mehmet Camii - KadirgaD-4 Green
D-4 - Green Fuad Pacha CamiiSokullu Mehmet Pacha TurbesiB-1 Green
D-4 - Green Haseki Hurrem HammamSt. Euphemia'sD-4 Red
D-4 - Green Ibrahim Pacha SarayiSt. George's (Orthodox Patriarchate)C-2 Red
D-4 - Green Sokullu Mehmet Pacha Camii (Kadirga)St. Mary of the MongolsC-2 Red
D-4 - Green Sultan Ahmet I KulliyesiSt. Polyeuktos'C-3 Red
E-1 - Green Dolmabahce CamiiSt. Paul's OrphanageE-3 Red
E-2 - Green Cihangir CamiiSt. Saviour in ChoraB-2 Red
E-2 - Green Molla Celebi CamiiSultan Ahmet III CesmesiD-3 Green
E-2 - Green Nusretiye CamiiSultan Ahmet I KulliyesiD-4 Green
E-3 - Blue Column of the GothsSultan Beyazit II CamiiD-3 Green
E-3 - Red St. Paul's OrphanageSultan Fatih Mehmet Camii (*)C-3 Green
E-3 - Green Topkapi SarayiSultan Mahmut II TurbesiD-3 Green
F-1 - Green Barbaros TurbesiSultan Selim I CamiiC-2 Green
F-1 - Green Dolmabahce SarayiSultan Selim II TurbesiD-3 Green
F-1 - Green Sinan Pacha CamiiSultan Suleyman KulliyesiD-3 Green
F-2 - Green Ayasma CamiiTimurtas CamiiD-3 Green
F-2 - Green Rum Mehmet Pacha CamiiTophane CesmesiD-2 Green
F-2 - Green Semsi Pacha CamiiTophane-i-AmirD-2 Green
G-1 - Green Ciragan SarayiTopkapi SarayiD-3 Green
G-1 - Green Ortakoy CamiiVefa Kilise CamiiC-3 Red
G-2 - Green Ahmediye KulliyesiVezir HaniD-3 Green
G-2 - Green Cinili CamiYeni CamiD-3 Green
G-2 - Green Mihrimah Camii (Uskudar)Yeni Valide KulliyesiG-2 Green
G-2 - Green Nisanci Kara Davut Pacha CamiiYerebatan SarayiD-3 Blue
G-2 - Green Yeni Valide KulliyesiZal Mahmut Pacha CamiiB-1 Green
G-3 - Green Atik Valide KulliyesiZeynep Sultan CamiiD-3 Green

(*) aka Fatih Sultan Mehmet Camii

Key dates

YearEventOther aspects
667 BCFoundation of Byzantium by Greek settlersThe town is located on the tip of a peninsula controlling the Golden Horn, a natural harbour
193-96 ADSiege and destruction of Byzantium by Emperor Septimius SeverusThe town is rebuilt by the emperor who names it Augusta Antonina.
326Emperor Constantine selects Byzantium as the new capital (Nova Roma) of the Roman EmpireIn 330 the construction of the new city is completed: it will become known as Constantinopolis.
379-95Emperor Theodosius I makes Christianity the official state religion of the empireTheodosius places an obelisk in the Hippodrome and builds a triumphal gate (Golden Gate) at the entrance of the city.
408-50Emperor Theodosius II builds new wallsFirst reconstruction of Hagia Sophia
527-65Emperor Justinian conquers Tunisia and Italy. During the 540s an outbreak of bubonic plague greatly reduces the population of the empire and its economySecond reconstruction of Hagia Sophia. It is thought that the plague killed 40% of the inhabitants of Constantinople.
610-41Emperor Eraclius manages to reconquer Syria and Egypt which were occupied by the Persians, but these provinces are soon lost to the Arabs.Latin is replaced by Greek as official language of the Empire.
674-78First Arab siege of Constantinople-
717-41Emperor Leo III repels the Second Arab siege of ConstantinopleBeginning of the Iconoclasm period (730-842)
886-912Emperor Leo VI is defeated by the Bulgarians. The strength of the empire rests on its navy.Venice starts having an important role in shipping to western Europe the luxury goods manufactured at Constantinople
1056-81Continued dynastic quarrels weaken the empire. In 1071 Turkish tribes defeat the Byzantines at Manzikert and establish the Sultanate of Rum.-
1081-1185The Comnenan dynasty restores the authority of the state.Construction of Christ Pantokrator
1204The crusaders conquer Constantinople and put a temporary end to the Byzantine Empire-
1261The Byzantine Empire is restored by the Palaeologos dynasty-
1326-56The Ottomans conquer Bursa and Nicaea and expand their territories in Europe. Decoration of St. Saviour in Chora and of the Parecclesion of Theotokos Pammakaristos.
1420-53The Ottomans gradually control most of the Byzantine Empire and in 1453 Sultan Mehmet II conquers Constantinople which becomes the capital of his empireConstruction of Anadolu Hisar and Rumeli Hisar
1460-61The Ottomans conquer the last Byzantine possessions at MistrÓ and Trebizond.Sultan Mehmet II starts the construction of Yeni (Topkapi) Sarayi.
1463-79War with Venice; the Ottomans conquer Negroponte; they also expand their territories in central Anatolia.Construction of several mosques by the sultan and his grand viziers.
1499-1502War with Venice; the Ottomans acquire several fortresses on the Greek mainland.Sultan Beyazit II starts the construction of a large mosque.
1512-15Expansion of the Ottoman Empire in Syria, Palestine, Egypt and along the coasts of the Red Sea.-
1522The Knights of Rhodes surrender their fortresses in the Aegean Sea.Completion of Sultan Selim Camii.
1531Battle of Mohacs. The Ottomans conquer most of Hungary.-
1537-41War with Spain and Venice; failed siege of Corfu; Ottoman naval supremacy after they defeat a Christian fleet at Preveza.Mimar Sinan is appointed chief architect of the Ottoman court; Haseki Hurrem Kulliye is his first work in Constantinople.
1542-43Alliance with France; the Ottoman fleet raids Imperial possessions in Spain, Sicily and near Naples.Mimar Sinan builds a turbe for Barbarossa, the admiral of the Ottoman fleet.
1551-62War with Spain in the Mediterranean Sea; failed siege of Malta in 1565.Mimar Sinan builds many mosques and Suleymaniye.
1570-71The Ottomans occupy Cyprus. Their fleet is defeated at Lepanto.Grand Vizier Sokullu Mehmet builds a large mosque at Kadirga.
1574After the death of Sultan Selim II, the mothers of the sultans acquire a great power on the government of the state. Valide Sultan, mother of Sultan Murad II builds a large kulliye at Uskudar.
1593-1606Long War with Austria: the Ottomans are unable to expand into Habsburg territory. Foundation of Yeni (Valide) Camii by Safiye Sultan, mother of Sultan Mehmet III.
1603-14The Safavids (Persians) seize Ottoman territories in the Caucasus. Construction of Sultan Ahmet Kulliyesi.
1645-69War of Candia. Rise of the Koprulu family. Construction of Koprulu Kulliyesi.
1682-99War with Austria and Venice; failed siege of Vienna; the Ottomans cede Hungary to Austria and Morea to Venice.Construction of Yeni Valide Camii at Uskudar in 1708.
1714-18New war with Austria and Venice; the Ottomans cede Belgrade to Austria but reoccupy Morea.-
1718-30Tulip period.Construction of Sultan Ahmet III fountain.
1735-74Wars with Russia (1735-39 and 1768-74); in 1771 Count Orloff destroys an Ottoman fleet at Cesme. Construction of Nuruosmaniye (1748-55) and Laleli Camii (1759-63).
1808-39Sultan Mahmut II vainly attempts to strengthen the empire by introducing a series of reforms, including the disbandment of the Janissary corps. Construction of Nusretiye Camii and of Beyazit tower
1853-56Crimean War; the main European powers compete to take advantage of the Ottoman decline.The Sultan and his court relocate at Dolmabahce Sarayi
1911-18Wars with Italy, the Balcanic nations and finally WWI lead to the dissolvement of the Empire. -
1923The Sultanate is abolished. Ankara is the capital of the newly founded Republic of Turkey.-

Bibliography:
H. W. Haussig - Kulturgeschichte von Byzanz - Alfred Kroner Verlag Stuttgart 1959
S. J. Shaw - History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey - Cambridge University Press 1976
G. Hern - Strahlend in Purpur und Gold - Econ Verlag GmbH Dusseldorf 1979
L. P. Peirce - The Imperial Harem - Oxford University Press US, 1993
H. Sumner-Boyd & John Freely - Strolling through Istanbul - Redhouse Press - Istanbul 2006

Websites:
Archnet - Islamic Architecture Community: http://archnet.org/lobby/
Muslim Heritage: http://www.muslimheritage.com/Default.aspx

Introduction to this section
Roman Memories
Hagia Sophia
Hagia Irene and Little Hagia Sophia
Roman/Byzantine exhibits at the Archaeological Museum
Great Palace Mosaic Museum
Byzantine Heritage - Other Churches (before 1204)
St. Saviour in Chora
Hagia Irene and Little Hagia Sophia
Byzantine Heritage - Other Churches (before 1204)
First Ottoman Buildings
The Golden Century: I - from Sultan Selim to Sinan's Early Works
The Golden Century: II - The Age of Suleyman
The Golden Century: III - Suleymaniye Kulliye
The Golden Century: IV - Sinan's Last Works
The Heirs of Sinan
Towards the Tulip Era
Baroque Istanbul
The End of the Ottoman Empire
Topkapi Sarayi
Museums near Topkapi Sarayi

Other sections dealing with Constantinople/Istanbul:
The Walls of Nova Roma
Galata

Clickable Map of Turkey showing all the locations covered in this website (opens in another window).