Home

Visit Rome following 8 XVIIIth century itineraries XVIIIth century Rome in the 10 Books of Giuseppe Vasi - Le Magnificenze di Roma Antica e Moderna The Grand View of Rome by G. Vasi The Environs of Rome: Frascati, Tivoli, Albano and other small towns near Rome A 1781 map of Rome by G. Vasi An 1852 map of Rome by P. Letarouilly Rome seen by a 1905 armchair traveller in the paintings by Alberto Pisa The 14 historical districts of Rome An abridged history of Rome How to spend a peaceful day in Rome Baroque sculptors and their works The coats of arms of the popes in the monuments of Rome Pages on a specific pope Pages complementing the itineraries and the views by Giuseppe Vasi Walks in the Roman countryside and in other towns of Latium following Ferdinand Gregorovius A Directory of links to the Churches of Rome A Directory of links to the Palaces and Villas of Rome A Directory of links to the Other Monuments of Rome A Directory of Baroque Architects with links to their works A Directory of links to Monuments of Ancient Rome A Directory of links to Monuments of Medieval Rome A Directory of links to Monuments of Renaissance A Directory of links to Monuments of the Late Renaissance A list of the most noteworthy Roman Families Directories of fountains, obelisks, museums, etc. Books and guides used for developing this web site An illustrated Glossary of Art Terms Venice and the Levant Roman recollections in Florence A list of Italian towns shown in this web site Venetian Fortresses in Greece Vienna seen by an Italian XVIIIth century traveller A list of foreign towns shown in this web site
What's New!

Detailed Sitemap

All images © by Roberto Piperno, owner of the domain. Write to romapip@quipo.it. Text edited by Rosamie Moore.
Page revised in June 2010.


A Genoese Trade Route - Anadolu Kavagi
(relief showing the coat of arms of Genoa at Amastri)

The influence played by Genoa in the frequent dynastic quarrels which characterized the last centuries of the Byzantine Empire is evident in the kind of concessions the emperors made to the Genoese. Not only trading rights, ports of call, monopoly of minerals (such as alum) and entire islands, but even the two fortresses which controlled the passage through the Bosporus.

XIXth century
XIXth century print showing Anadolu Kavagi

Anadolu Kavagi (most likely meaning Anatolian oak) and Rumeli Kavagi on the European side of the Bosporus were two Byzantine fortresses which were peacefully acquired by the Genoese. They were located near the northern mouth of the Bosporus into the Black Sea.

View of the Black Sea
View of the final section of the Bosporus and of the Black Sea from the fortress (the image shows on the European side, and in the far distance the lighthouse of Rumeli Feneri, another Genoese base)

Anadolu Kavagi in particular enjoyed a strategic location on a promontory commanding an excellent view over the Black Sea.

View of the lower fortress and beyond the Bosporus of Rumeli Kavagi
View of the lower fortress and beyond the Bosporus of Rumeli Kavagi

The site is still fortified and the lower part of the hill is controlled by the Turkish army. There is no evidence left of the fortress (Rumeli Kavagi) which once existed on the European side. A chain laid between the two fortresses blocked the passage of hostile ships.

Main gate
Main gate

The upper part of the fortress (called Yoros Castle) is open to visitors. The Genoese lost control of the fortresses soon after the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Sultan Mehmet II. Prior to starting the siege of the city Mehmet II used a carrot and stick approach towards the Genoese to obtain their neutrality in the forthcoming conflict. He built a powerful fortress (
Rumeli Hisar) a few miles south of the Genoese fortresses to undermine their control of the Bosporus and at the same time he let them understand that they would not be affected by his conquest of Constantinople.

Relief above the main entrance (internal side)
Relief above the main entrance (internal side); you can see a similar relief in the image used as background for this page

Mehmet II, once he had achieved his main goal, decided to secure his conquest by curtailing the Genoese influence and in a few years the Genoese of the region had to accept willy-nilly the conditions imposed by the Sultan who left them only some trading privileges.


Return to:
Galata

Move to:
Kilyos/Rumeli Feneri
Amastri
Sinope

Clickable Map of Turkey showing all the locations covered in this website (opens in another window).



SEE THESE OTHER EXHIBITIONS (for a full list see my detailed list).

Walls of Nova RomaVenetian Fortresses in GreeceAntioch